Prehistory

Middle Paleolithic: Aterian Civilization (sites of Bir el Ater, south of Annaba, and in the Nementcha at 70 km south of Tebessa, to the extremity of djebelOnk).

Ancient Neolithic: Sites of snail shell mounds near Constantine and in the Sahara: Capsians were escargot eaters.

Recent Neolithic in Sahara (humid): Brilliant Civilization (engravings and cave paintings of the Tassilin’Adjjer).

16th Century to 9th Century BC: Probable descendants of the Capsians came into contact with " people of the Sea " and learned Aegean and Anatolian techniques: the Sahara became barren and empty.


Carthaginian Period, Kingdom of Numidia and Roman Period

About 1250 BC : Arrival of the Phoenician and foundation of the merchant colonies of Hippo-regius and Utica.

About-510 BC: Treaty between Rome and Carthage, Rome recognized the commercial monopoly of Carthage in the western Mediterranean

From 348 BC to 306 BC : Commercial Treaties between the Punics and Romans

From 264 BC to 146 BC : Punic wars (264 BC to 241 BC/ 218BC to 201 BC/ 149 BC to 146 BC)

3rd and 2nd century BC : Kingdoms of Numidia :Syphax, Massinissa and Jugurtha

From 111 BC to 105 BC : Jugurthine Wars between Jugurtha, king of the Numidians, and the Romans

46 BC : Numidia became a Roman province

From 1 AD to 429 AD : Romanization of North Africa

From 429 AD to 430 AD : Invasion of the Vandals

From 533 AD to 646 AD : Byzantine Conquests of North Africa


The advent of Islam

647 AD : Arrival of the Arabs: Incursion of Oqba Ibn-Nafaa;

From 776 to 909 : Rostomid dynasty

From 908 to 972 : Fatimid Dynasty

From 972 to 1148 : Zirid dynasty

From 1007 to 1152 : Hammadit dynasty

From 1052 to 1147 : Almoravid Dynasty

From 1121 to 1235 : Almohad dynasty

From 1235 to 1556 : Zianid dynasty


Ottoman Authority

1518 : To fight against the threat of Spanish occupation, Kheireddine Barberousse placed Algiers under protection of the ottoman Sultan of Istanbul.

1534-1587 : Reign of the "Beyler beys" (23 Beyler beys took power)

1587-1659 : Reign of the Pachas (about 40 pachas took power)

1659-1671 : Reign of the "Aghas"(about 04 aghas took power)

1671-1710 : Authority of the deys-pachas (11 deys took power) Algiers withstood English and French aggressions (1678,1680,1682,1688)

1710-1830 : Authority of the Dey (18 deys took power, the latest was Dey Hocine) 


French colonization

June 14, 1830 : Disembarkation of French forces on the coast of Sidi Fredj.

July 5, 1830 : Signature of the agreement of submission by the Dey of Algiers

1832-1847 : Revolt of Emir Abd el-kader who made his authority recognized on the center and the west of Algeria as the Algerian State.

1830-1848 : Resistance of Ahmed Bey in the East of Algeria

February 26, 1834 : Desmichels Treaty concluded between France and Emir Abd El Kader

May 3, 1837 : Treaty of Tafna concluded between General Bugeaud and Emir Abd El Kader

1846 : Revolt of Benacer Ben Chohra in the Center and the Southeast of Algeria

1845-1850 : Revolt of the oasis of Zaatcha and Zibane conducted by Sheik Bouziane

1851-1860 : Revolt of Cherif Boubeghla and Fatma N'soumer in Djurdjura and in Kabylia

1864-1884 : Revolt of Ouled sidi-cheikh

1871-1872 : Revolt of Hadj Mohamed El Mokrani Boumezrag and Cheikh El Haddad

1877-1912 : Revolt of the Touareg in the Hoggar under the lead of Sheik Amoud Ben Mokhtar

1912 : Creation of the “Movement of the Algerian youth”, (in French :“Mouvement de la Jeunesse Algerienne) directed by the émir Khaled.
Creation in Algiers of “The association of the Muslim Students of North Africa”( in French: “L’Association des Etudiants Musulmans de l’Afrique du Nord”(A.E.M.A.N.)

March 1926 : Creation in Paris of “ The North African star”,( in French: “l'Étoile Nord Africaine”) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali

1927 : Creation in Paris of “The association of the North African Muslim Students”,( in French “L’Association des EtudiantsMusulmans Nord Africains -A.E.M.A.N.F)

May 5, 1931 : Creation of “L’Association des OulamasMusulmans” by Sheik Abdelhamid Ben Badis.

March 1937 : Creation in Algiers of “the Party of the People of Algeria”,( in French: “ Le Parti du Peuple Algerian P.P.A) by El-hadj Ahmed Messali.

1943 : Ferhat Abbas presented to the allies in WW2 the “Manifesto of the Algerian people” requesting the equality between the Muslim and European communities.

May 8, 1945 : Massacres of Sétif, Guelma and Kherrata, about 45.000 people killed.

1946 : Ferhat Abbas created “The Democratic Union of the Algerian Manifesto’) In French. “l’Union Democrate du Manifeste Algerien (U.D.M.A)
El-hadj Ahmed Messali created “the Movement for the Triumph of The Democratic Liberties” (in French: “ Le Mouvement pour le Triomphe des Libertés Démocratiques (M.T.L.D)

1947 : Creation of “the Special Organization”. (in French : “l’Organisation Spéciale)

November 1, 1954 : Starting of the Algerian revolution.

September 1955 : The Algerian question placed on the agenda of the U.N.

August 20, 1956 : Congress of the Soummam and instauration of the “National Council of the Algerian Revolution “ ( In French : le Conseil national de la Révolution algérienne C.N.R.A.) and “the committee of coordination and application ” (In French: le Comité de coordination et d'exécution C. C. E)

September 19, 1958 : Creation of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic. “ in French: Le Gouvernement Provisoire de la Republique Algerienne (G.P.R.A.)” presided by Ferhat Abbas.

January 18, 1960 : Appoinment of the second Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (G.P.R.A.)” presided by Ferhat Abbas

August 09, 1961 : Ben youcef Ben khedda became the 3rd President of the Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic.

March 18, 1962 : Signature of the Evian agreements

March 19, 1962 : Proclamation of the cease-fire.

April 1962 : Installation of the Provisional Executive in “Rocher Noir” (Boumèrdes)

July 01, 1962 : Referendum on self-determination, (99.7% in favor of independence).

July 05, 1962 : Proclamation of the independence of Algeria.


Independent Algeria

September 20, 1962 : Election of the first constituent assembly.

September 25, 1962 : Proclamation of the People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria.

September 29, 1962 : Constitution of the first government of the independant Algeria.

October 08, 1962 : Admission of Algeria to the U.N.

May 08, 1963 : Adoption by referendum of the first constitution of Algeria

September 15, 1963 : Election of Mr. Ahmed Ben Bella to the Presidency of the Republic.

April 1964 : Adoption of the Charter of Algiers by the 3rd congress of the F. L. N. (National Liberation Front)

June 19, 1965: Creation of the Council of the Revolution presided by Mr. Houari Boumediene.

May 07, 1966 : Nationalization of mines.

February 05, 1967 : First local election (A.P.C (boroughs) and A.P.W. (Departments)

May 1967 : French army left the bases of Reggane and Bechar.

February 1st, 1968 : Withdrawal of the French army from the naval base of Mers El-kebir.

February 24, 1971 : Nationalization of hydrocarbons.

June 27, 1976 : Adoption by referendum of the National charter.

November 19, 1976 : Adoption by referendum of the second constitution of Algeria.

December 10, 1976 : Election of Mr. Houari Boumediene to the Presidency of the Republic.

December 27, 1978 : Death of President Houari Boumediene .

February 07, 1979 : Election of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic.

January 13, 1983 : Reelection of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic (2nd mandate).

October 05, 1988 : Protests in several cities of Algeria.

November 03, 1988 : Adoption by referendum of the revision of the Constitution

December 22, 1988 : Reelection of Mr. Chadli Ben Jedid to the Presidency of the Republic (3rd mandate).

February 23, 1989 : Adoption by referendum of the fourth constitution of Algeria

June 05, 1991 : Proclamation of the state of siege.

January 04, 1992 : Dissolution of the People’s National Assembly (parliament).

January 12, 1992 : Resignation of President Chadli Ben Djedid.

January 14, 1992 : Creation of the Higher State Council (in French :Haut Comité d'Etat -H.C.E.) under the presidency of Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.

February 02, 1992 : Instauration of the state of emergency.

February 04, 1992 : Creation of a National Consultative Council.

June 29, 1992 : Assassination of the President of the Higher State Council, Mr. Mohamed Boudiaf.

July 02, 1992 : Mr. Ali Kafi became President of the Higher state Council.

January 30, 1994 : End of the mandate of the Higher State Council, Mr. Liamine Zeroual designated Head of State.

May 18, 1994 : Creation of the National Council of Transition (in French: Conseil National de Transition).

November 16, 1995 : Mr. LiamineZeroual elected President of the Republic.

November 28, 1996 : Referendum on the fifth Constitution of Algeria.

June 05, 1997 : Pluralist legislative election.

October 23, 1997 : Pluralist local Election.

September 11, 1998 : Mr. Liamine Zeroual announced early presidential election.

April 15, 1999 : Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika elected President of the Republic.

September 16, 1999 : Adoption by referendum of the Law on the civil concord

April 10, 2002 : Constitutionalization of Tamazight (Berber Language) as national language.

May 30, 2002 : Second pluralist legislative election.

April 08, 2004 : Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.

September 23, 2005 : Adoption, by referendum, of the National Charter for Peace and Reconciliation

17 Mai 2007 : Pluralist legislative election

November 12, 2008 : Revision of the Constitution of Algeria.

April 09, 2009 : Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.

10 Mai 2012: Pluralist legislative election.

April 17, 2014: Mr. Abdelaziz Bouteflika reelected President of the Republic.